Online Privacy Glossary
Learn key online privacy terms with Incogni.
Colorado Privacy Act (CPA)
The Colorado Privacy Act (CPA) is a comprehensive data privacy state law providing Colorado residents with the right to opt out of targeted advertising, the sale of their personal data, and certain types of profiling . The CPA will go into effect on July 1, 2023, making Colorado the third state, after California and Virginia, to have a comprehensive data privacy legislation in place.
Connecticut Data Privacy Act (CTDPA)
The Connecticut Data Privacy Act (CTDPA) is a national data privacy law in the United States providing Connecticut residents with various rights over their personal data – such as the option to opt-out of targeted advertising, the sale of personal data, and automated profiling. The CTDPA also provides certain obligations for data controllers and processors, such as requiring privacy notices.
Cookies are small pieces of data created by a web server and stored within a web browser. They store and save browsing information which can later be retrieved. Once the user comes back to the website, cookies inform the web server that you have returned.
Cyberbullying is a form of bullying that occurs through electronic devices such as cell phones and computers. It can occur through social media sites, online games, text messages, forums, and other online means of communication.
Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computers, networks, and sensitive data from unauthorized or criminal access and malicious attacks carried out by cybercriminals. It involves taking various steps and using a range of tools to detect and prevent cyber attacks, as well as responding to and recovering from security incidents.
Cyberstalking is a form of online harassment which involves harassing a victim through the internet or other forms of electronic communications. Although it doesn’t involve physical contact, cyberstalking can cause substantial emotional distress and even involve serious criminal actions.
Data privacy refers to the protection and confidentiality of personal information. It involves the collection, storage, use, and dissemination of personal information in a manner that is secure, private, ethical, and in compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Your digital footprint is a record of everything you do online, like the websites you visit and what you post on social media. It’s important to be careful because this information can be seen by companies, advertisers, and even the government.
Do Not Track (DNT)
Do Not Track (DNT) is a browser setting used to signal a user’s preference not to be tracked by website cookies or have their personal information shared. It’s a voluntary system that has been adapted by all browsers, though many websites still don’t honor a Do Not Track preference.
Doxxing refers to the deliberate public disclosure of a person’s sensitive personal information without their permission. The intention behind doxxing someone need not be malicious, but it most often is. In effect, doxxing involves connecting a person’s online persona to their true identity.
Email masking, also known as email obfuscation or email anonymization, is a technique used to protect the privacy and security of an email address. Email masking prevents email addresses from being scraped by the email harvesters and spambots that collect them for malicious purposes like spamming or phishing.
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
GDPR stands for General Data Protection Regulation. It’s a comprehensive data protection regulation introduced by the European Union in 2016 and enforced in 2018. It gives individuals greater control over their personal data and unifies data protection laws across the EU member states.
Location tracking refers to the collection and analysis of data that reveals the whereabouts of a device or person. This is a prevalent practice that can be achieved through GPS, Wi-Fi, cell tower triangulation, and other methods as well as combinations of methods.
To “opt out” is a process of decision-making during which an individual decides not to participate in a particular activity or service or chooses to stop receiving unsolicited service information. The concept of opting out is typically connected with marketing practices, but it can also be applied to advertising, social norms, political systems, opt-out cookies, and more.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
Personally Identifiable Information is any information that can be used to identify someone. This can include direct information such as name and Social Security number or indirect information such as race and gender. Any information that can be traced back to an individual is considered PII.
Public records, kept by government agencies, are an invaluable source of information for the general public. These records encompass a wide range of data, from individual and business information to court cases and government contracts.
Third-party cookies are cookies created by a different domain than the one you see in your URL bar. Set in third-party code, these cookies are typically used for tracking and online-advertising purposes. Overall, third-party cookies can enhance the browsing experience, but they often do this in exchange for personal data.
US Data Privacy Laws
There are no federal data privacy laws in the US. The proposed American Data Privacy Protection Act (ADPPA) is as close as US residents have been to such a law. The first federal consumer privacy bill to pass committee markup, ADPPA was approved 53-2 by the Committee on Energy and Commerce on July 20, 2022.
Utah Consumer Privacy Act (UCPA)
The UCPA (Utah Consumer Privacy Act) is a state law designed to protect consumer data. It was signed into law on March 24, 2023 and will come into effect on December 31, 2023. At the time of its signing, the Utah Consumer Privacy Act was the fourth such state privacy legislation in the US.